The four platforms studied for the PLUS project encompass various types of services: transport, including passenger and goods transport (Uber and Deliveroo), cleaning services (Helpling and Airbnb and tourism (Airbnb). The seven PLUS cities, Barcelona, Berlin, Bologna, Lisbon, London, Paris and Tallinn, have accommodated and reacted to the platforms’
presence, potentials and disruptions differently, but also share similarities regarding policy interventions.

This policy brief has two objectives: first, it describes key aspects of how platforms are embedded in the respective sectors and contrasts it with the overall industry’s scope. Second, it exemplifies some of the platforms’ specific impacts at industry level and hints towards potential regulations at municipal, sectoral or cross-sectoral level to mitigate the platforms’ negative impacts.


Date: December 23, 2021.

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